Gynecological (GYN) problems occur in all women. They're also some of the most common complications experienced by women living with HIV. GYN problems can be more serious and difficult to treat in women with weak immune systems.
GYN problems range from irregular periods to vaginal yeast infections that just won't go away. More serious complications can include cancers or painful warts on the vagina, labia (vaginal lips), and the anal area (around your butt-hole).
Many GYN problems lack obvious symptoms and can remain undetected. Left untreated, they can further weaken the immune system. Therefore, regular exams to detect problems are crucial, even when you're feeling well and even when you don't have symptoms. Detection and treatment are critical steps to prevent a GYN condition from getting out of control.
A woman's body usually prepares for pregnancy about every 28 days. Her cycle begins on the first day of bleeding and continues to the first day of the next menstrual period.
Every woman's body is unique. For some, a cycle is as short as 21 days or as long as 35 days, and for some women, each cycle is different from the previous. What is irregular for one woman may be normal for another. If a woman has irregular or abnormal menstrual bleeding, a doctor may prescribe hormones or other therapies (including different birth control methods) to help regulate her period.
Menstruation at regular cycle intervals but with excessive flow and duration is defined as Menorrhagia and is one of the most common gynecologic complaints in contemporary gynecology.
At some time in your reproductive life, you've probably experienced heavy bleeding during your menstrual period. If you're like some women, every period you have causes enough blood loss and cramping that you can't maintain your usual daily activities. The medical term for periods like these — excessive or prolonged or both — is menorrhagia.
Although heavy menstrual bleeding is a common concern among premenopausal women, few women experience blood loss severe enough to be defined as menorrhagia. If you have menstrual bleeding so heavy that you dread your period, talk with your doctor. There are many effective treatments for menorrhagia.
Normally, women experience their periods every twenty three to thirty five days. Bleeding through the vagina takes place during the periods when there is shedding of the uterus lining, known as endometrium lining. Periods mark the end of a reproductive cycle and the start of another one. Bleeding during periods can be heavy or light, it can last from two days to several days.
Abnormal vaginal bleeding is that which is unrelated to this reproductive cycle. The bleeding may be in the form of spotting after period or it may even be heavy bleeding, sometimes lasting for up to a week.
Blood clots are the clumps that occur when the blood hardens from a liquid to a solid (coagulates). A blood clot that forms inside a blood vessel or within the heart and remains there is called a thrombus.
A thrombus that travels from the blood vessel or heart to another location in the body is called an embolus. The disorder is called an embolism. For example, an embolus that occurs in the lungs is called a pulmonary embolism.
There is lot of secretions in our body from mucous membranes and glands, which have their own function, depending upon the place. Normally, the secretions protect our body by forming a slimy lining over the skin or mucous membrane. It also helps to keep the mucous membrane or skin moist and flexible, for example, sebum secretions in the face, saliva in the mouth, etc. If this secretion becomes very low, everyone will feel dryness and cracked skin which paves way for infection. Likewise, vaginal glands also secrete some secretions to keep the organ moist, flexible and to prevent it from infection by its acidic nature. At ovulation time, the acidic nature of the secretion gets altered to alkali nature by hormones to allow the sperm to survive for fertilization. If not, the sperms will find it difficult to thrive and reach the ovum. Also, secretions of the vagina help in lubrication during the sexual act.
White discharges are cloudy secretions from the female reproductive tract especially from the vagina or cervix or both. Leucorrhoea is a medical term for white discharges which is an excessive secretion of the vagina. It is very common in females nowadays, i.e. more than 30 per cent of girls suffer from leucorrhoea and feel discomfort and pain. It may be mild to severe, and varies from person to person.
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition in which there is an imbalance of a woman's female sex hormones. This hormone imbalance may cause changes in the menstrual cycle, skin changes, small cysts in the ovaries, trouble getting pregnant, and other problems.
Female sex hormones include estrogen and progesterone, as well as hormones called androgens. Androgens, often called "male hormones," are also present in women, but in different amounts.
Hormones help regulate the normal development of eggs in the ovaries during each menstrual cycle. Polycystic ovary syndrome is related to an imbalance in these female sex hormones. Too much androgen hormone is made, along with changes in other hormone levels.
Menopause is a natural hormone (estrogen) deficient state that occurs at the age of 45-55 years. After the age of 40 years, ovaries reduce their production of sex hormones. As a result, the menses as well as other body functions are disturbed. Finally the menses cease permanently. This ultimate pause is described as menopause. Needless to say that this phase also marks the end of fertility in a woman. Irregular periods, hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness and itching, and mood swings-- all these are typical symptoms of menopause.
Osteoporosis (thinning and weakening of bones), heart disease, and Alzheimer's disease (progressive loss of memory and concentration) are the long-term hazards of menopause. With an increase in life expectancy, menopause has become an inevitable phenomenon in a woman's life and many years are spent in the postmenopausal phase. In this millennium, a woman perceives menopause as an opportunity to concentrate on new activities and bring out the best in her. Consequently, treatment of this transitional phase has now gained more importance than ever before.