There are numerous skin diseases, complaints and general ailments that can be contacted, with conditions such as Psoriasis, Eczema and Utrauna Psoriasis Vitiligo, Eczema, Urticaria, Lichen Planus, Dandruff, Acne Vulgaris, Allergy probably the most common.
They can be caught in a number of different ways, with allergies, over exposure to hot conditions, genetic disorders and mental stress and fatigue being the most common.
None are fatal nor contagious, however swift treatment is advised, as depending on the severity of the attack the spots, blemishes and itches caused by these conditions can be very uncomfortable for the sufferer and the slight disfigurement that occurs to the skin can make you self-conscious of your appearance.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by eruptions of superficial papules and larger patches with phenomena of chronic inflammation.
The Lesions usually occur at First on the Elbows, Knees Scalp and Lower Limbs and later spread all over the body. Psoriasis results in the form of a complication known as Psoriatic Arthritis, which gives Joint Discomfort, Swelling, Stiffness or Throbbing. Psoriasis usually goes through cycles of relapses and remissions
Psoriasis is a Skin Disease that takes a toll on the confidence of a person. Silvery Scales or Fish Scale like Plaques on Skin characterizes it. Skin cells are easily lost. Skin will also be dry with Itching, which is so severe that in certain patients oozing of the blood is seen commonly along with Pus and Secondary Infections.
Vitiligo is a pigmentation disorder in the human skin. The human skin contains special skin cells (melanocytes) that produce the pigment melanin which colors the skin. In Vitiligo, the special skin cells (melanocytes) as well as the tissues (mucous membranes) that line the inside of the mouth, nose, genital and rectal areas, and the retina of the eyes are destroyed. As a result, white patches of skin appear on different parts of the body. The hair may also turn white that grows in areas affected by vitiligo.
The meaning of the word "eczema" can cause confusion. Many people use this word to refer to a common skin condition called atopic dermatitis. When this is the meaning, the words "eczema/atopic dermatitis" may be used.
The word "eczema" also has a more general meaning. Eczema can mean a family of skin conditions that causes the skin to become swollen, irritated, and itchy.
Many skin conditions are considered a type of eczema. Atopic dermatitis is one type. Other types include hand dermatitis, nummular dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis. Dandruff is a mild type of seborrheic dermatitis. Diaper rash and the rash that many people get after coming into contact with poison ivy are other types of eczema.
If symptoms of urticaria continue for more than six weeks it is called chronic urticaria. Dermatologists say that about 1 in every 1,000 people suffers from chronic urticaria. Experts are not completely sure what the causes of chronic urticaria are. However, most agree that it is closely linked with our immune system. In some cases, chronic hives may be related to an underlying autoimmune disorder, such as thyroid disease or lupus. 50% of people with chronic urticaria also have angioedema.
Angioedema is similar to urticaria, but occurs deeper inside the skin. The swelling causes a burning sensation and typically occurs on the face and neck, fingers, toes, and in the genitals of males.
Lichen planus is a recurrent rash that is due to inflammation. The rash is characterized by small, flat-topped, many-sided (polygonal) bumps that can grow together into rough, scaly patches on the skin. There may also be a rash in the lining (mucous membranes) of the mouth or vagina.
Lichen planus is a very curious skin condition, the effects of which are localized to the areas of involvement. (Lichen refers to a tree moss while planus is Latin for flat = like a flat tree moss.)
Lichen planus itches with an intensity that varies from mild to severe. It can be sudden or gradual. The first attack may last for weeks or months, and recurrences may happen for years. Children are not often affected by lichen planus. The bumps at first are 2 to 4 mm in diameter, with angular borders, and a violaceous color. At the onset of the disease, new bumps may appear at sites of minor skin injury, such as a superficial scratch. An excess of pigment (hyperpigmentation) may develop in the affected skin as the lesions persist. Rarely, a patchy scarring balding of the scalp occurs.
Dandruff, also known asscurf or Pityriasis simplex capillitii, affects the scalp and causes flakes of skin to appear - it is a common condition. Our skin cells are forever renewing themselves. When the skin cells on our scalp are renewed the old ones are pushed to the surface and out of the scalp. For a person with dandruff the renewal is faster, meaning more dead skin is shed, making the dandruff more noticeable. Dandruff can also occur if the scalp is frequently exposed to extreme temperatures.
Dandruff can be chronical (long-term) or the result of certain triggers. People with dandruff may also experience irritation and redness on the scalp.
Excessive flaking may be caused by an underlying illness or condition, such aspsoriasis, a fungal infection (Malassezia), seborrheic dermatitis, or even head lice.
Some individuals with severe dandruff may have social or self-esteem problems. Therefore, treatment may be important for both physiological and psychological reasons.
The common form of acne seen most often in teenagers or young adults, acne vulgaris is the result of overactive oil glands that become plugged, red, and inflamed. Most outbreaks of acne can be treated by keeping the skin clear and avoiding irritating soaps, foods, drinks, and cosmetics.
Severe acne and acne in those who are prone to scarring (see the article on Keloid) can be treated with topical creams and anti-inflammatory medications. Skin damaged by acne can be improved with treatment by a dermatologist or facial technologist.
Techniques include dermabrasion ("sanding"), removal of scar tissue via laser, and chemical peels. Acne is also called pimples.
An allergy refers to an exaggerated reaction by our immune system in response to bodily contact with certain foreign substances. It is exaggerated because these foreign substances are usually seen by the body as harmless and no response occurs in non- allergic people. Allergic people's bodies recognize the foreign substance and one part of the immune system is turned on. Allergy-producing substances are called "allergens." Examples of allergens include pollens, dust mite, molds, danders, and foods. It is important to remember that allergens are substances that are foreign to the body and can cause an allergic reaction in certain people.
When an allergen comes in contact with the body, it causes the immune system to develop an allergic reaction in persons who are allergic to it. When you inappropriately react to allergens that are normally harmless to other people, you are having an allergic reaction and can be referred to as allergic or atopic. Therefore, people who are prone to allergies are said to be allergic or "atopic."
Skin is the largest organ of the body which provides aprotective cover to the internal organs. The surface of skinmeasures 1.62 sq.metres in an average adult male and 1.43sqmetres in an average adult female. Although the mostsuperficial layer of skin is made up of dead cells, ratherthan being a dead covering for the body, it has severalinbuilt mechanisms for interacting with the environmentSkin consists of three main layers, the outer-most epidermis, the deeper dermis and the deepest subcutaneous tissueIn addition, the skin has two appendages namely the hairand the nails, and three glands namely the sweat glands,the sebaceous glands and the apocrine glands.
Hereditary disorders are best prevented by propergenetic counselling, or prenatal diagnosis of the diseaseand therapeutic abortions. However, once the disease hasmanifested, symptomatic treatment should be given to thepatient to compensate the morphologic abnormality. Suchtreatment has to be continued throughout the life of thepatient. In future however, it may become possible toreplace or correct the defective genes.
Nutritional deficiency can occur as a result of one or moreof the following: Insufficient intake of food, inadequateabsorption from the gastro-intestinal tract, increaseddemand by the body due to chronic illness or if the patientis taking drugs which compete with the nutrient(s)Nutritional deficiencies are more common during the warsand natural calamities.
Normal skin has adequate potential to protect itself fromthe environmental agents such as trauma, friction, heat,cold and radiations. But whenever the intensity of the stimulus is beyond that particular limit, the environmentalagent can damage the skin and produce the correspondingskin lesions.
Viruses are sub-microscopic infecting organisms which require a living host for their propagation. Some of the viruses can infect the skin. Viral Infection is one of the most common ailments affecting people. It can affect various parts of the human body. It is observed that some viruses are in the intestine, while many are in lungs and airways.
Auto-immunity plays a significant role in the causation of several skin disorders. Some of these disorders have been confirmed to be based on auto-immunity while in others auto-immunity is considered to be the main/significant mechanism. Basically, an auto-immune disorder is caused when the immune system starts destroying one or more of its own tissue components. Such a process can be initiated either by a deficient functioning of the control mechanism of the immune system (suppressor cells) or by modification of the self component by some virus or a chemical including some drugs which now behaves as an antigen Less commonly, other mechanisms may be operative.
Hair is designed to perform different functions in different regions of the body. In the humans however, hair has only a cosmetic function. Thus an excessive loss of hair as well s excess of hair both force the patients to seek medical advice.
Diseases for which the actiopathogenic mechanisms have not so far been adequately defined have been grouped in this chapter. Crying, problems with feeding, rashes, and an occasional fever are common. These problems become health concerns only when they are extreme—for example, when children cry too much, when they are not growing well (see Failure to Thrive), or when they have high fevers that do not go away.
Diseases acquired through sesual intercourse or other sex rclated activities are called sesually ransmited diseases STDugh soch disca bcquired through contact also. The conventional diseases include phils gohoon-specific ureths (NSU) chancrod, lymphogranuloma venereum and donovanosis bt lately some other diseases such as herpes simplex
warts, moluscum contagiosum, scabies and pediculosis involving the genial area have alho been included among the STD.